The growth of stablecoins such as tether (USDT) and USD Coin (USDC) presents a significant challenge for central banks, according to Bank of Korea Governor Rhee Chang-yong. Despite their name, these stablecoins often lack stability, which raises concerns for central banks. Speaking at the Digital Money: Navigating a Changing Financial Landscape conference, Rhee emphasized the urgency for central banks to consider introducing central bank digital currencies (CBDC), both in the retail and wholesale sectors.
Rhee highlighted that the widespread adoption of stablecoins could potentially diminish the role of central bank money and impair the effectiveness of monetary policies. Stablecoins are cryptocurrencies that are pegged to a fiat currency, such as the dollar or euro, to maintain a stable value. However, their ability to hold their pegs has come under scrutiny.
This week, ratings company S&P introduced a system for evaluating stablecoins’ ability to maintain their pegs. Tether, the largest stablecoin by market value, received a rating just one rank above the lowest in S&P’s five-point scale. Notably, none of the eight coins evaluated received top marks, further highlighting the concerns surrounding stablecoin stability.
In response to these challenges, Rhee announced that the Bank of Korea is actively working on a wholesale CBDC pilot and exploring its potential use in tokenizing real-world assets. The bank has previously stated its plans for a retail CBDC pilot scheme involving 100,000 individuals next year.
The introduction of CBDCs by central banks seeks to address the issues arising from the growth of stablecoins. CBDCs would offer a regulated and stable digital currency alternative, ensuring the stability and effectiveness of monetary policies. By reducing reliance on unstable stablecoins, central banks would regain control over the financial ecosystem.
These developments come amidst calls from the global banking regulator for stricter criteria in evaluating stablecoins and providing them with preferential risk treatment. The increasing focus on stablecoin regulation reflects the need for a comprehensive framework that safeguards financial stability and protects market participants.
As the world moves further into the digital age, the financial landscape continues to evolve. The rise of stablecoins and the challenges they pose to central banks highlight the need for innovative solutions. The introduction of CBDCs represents a potential avenue for restoring stability and control in the financial system.